Hello Rich, what you are experiencing with your coal is exactly what I used to experience with my boiler. When I had a 6" chimney and flue pipes.
The problem is that bituminous coal has lots of volitiles in the coal. It is sort of like a bottle of soda. If you shake a bottle of soda, you get a lot more volume of bubbles, foam and mess than the original container held in liquid.
When you heat bituminous, the volitiles burn off first, making all the heavy yellow flames with inky-black soot. The volume of the gasses and soot burning off the coal is too great for the chimney to pull out of the firebox, so the smoke goes to the next best place, out the door and into your face and into your house.
I cured my problem about 95% by adding an additional 6' to the chimney and converting it and all the pipes to 8" from 6". Now I get very little soot and smoke out the door when loading and poking and breaking up the stuck-together coal.
Since it is not an easy thing to convert a chimney, make sure you have a clean flue pipe and chimney, Make sure the cap on the the chimney [if you have one] is clean and not clogged with soot.
If you are getting as much soot out the door as you are, just think how much is going up the flue pipes and chimney. Bitumonous soot is sticky, it will adhere to the sides of the flue like glue, and reduce the pipe dianmeter by an inch a side in a few weeks. From 6" ID to 4" ID! You will have to add flue cleaning to your regular maintenance routines.
The next thing to do is make sure that any dampers are not obstructing the flue, and that the chimney is only venting this coal furnace, You can't afford to share the chimney draft with another appliance, You are very short on draft.
Open the under grate air vent for several minutes to 'rev-up' the fire, then slowly open the loading door, giving the chimney every opportunity to develope some draft and air velocity to pull the soot away from the loading door. If the combustion fan is running , turn it off when the door is open.
You may want to open a window in the basement when you are loading the furnace, this will give an easy source of outside air to allow maximum draft. If you have a tight house, your chimney will have to pull hard to find air to take up the through the firebox.
That's what I can share from my bitumonous burning experiences and ideas to solve your smoke/soot problem.
Let us know how it works out.