At first sight I thought they heated the beehive ovens from the fireplace also. But I learned they didn't.
On, "baking day", they started early and built the fire right inside the oven. That's why, if you look inside, there is a small flue from inside the top of the oven angling up into the main chimney flue as john pointed out about his. Several hours of a wood fire put a lot of heat into that massive pile of brick. The brick released it back out at a surprisingly even rate. And usually just a wood plug door with a handle to close the opening.
Yes, all the early cooking fireplaces I've seen had panel and frame covering everything except maybe part of the stone mantel. And all were painted. If your house had higher ceilings, it's possible it was built for someone a bit wealthier than the neighbor with the low ceilings.
That really brings back great memories. Thank you.